International shipping can be mysterious to those of us who do it rarely or occasionally. Subject to export and import controls, duties, taxes and regulations of the 196 countries — each different from the others — even professionals run into problems. Fines, payment of unnecessary taxes, confiscation, or incarceration can all result.
It can be costly and time-consuming when it goes wrong:
Everything that crosses the border is an export...
...even if it's temporary
...even if it wasn't sold
...even if it will be used for research
If you're shipping to a destinations outside the US, refer to the Export checklist. Remember — once an international shipment is on the way, it's difficult to fix it if there are problems. Delays, unexpected costs, or worse can result.
MIT is the shipper of record, responsible for shipping correctly and getting the paperwork right. FedEx, UPS, DHL, a freight forwarder may help or offer advice, and they record the shipment in the government's Automated Export System, but if there's a problem, it's MIT's problem, not theirs.
Most items, as well as some software and information, are subject to U.S. export controls. The impact of these controls on a particular shipment depends on the item, the country it's being shipped to, the entity or individual who will receive it, and the use to which it will be put.
There are additional U.S. restrictions on transactions — including but not limited to shipping — with certain countries, entities, and individuals.
Some items are hazardous, and need to be packaged and labeled appropriately:
- Batteries and fuel cells
- Radioactive materials
And bear in mind that every export from the U.S. is an import somewhere else — your shipment will need to go through Customs in the destination country. Some items may be prohibited or require prior authorization. Some items may incur duty or VAT costs.
If you expect to receive a shipment from outside the US: refer to the Import checklist
All incoming shipments are cleared by U.S. Customs, with varying (and unpredictable) levels of scrutiny.
Some items are restricted at the Customs stage:
- Biological specimens
- Certain fish and wildlife, and products made from them
- Fruits, vegetables, plants, seeds, soil
- Items from Cuba, Iran, Myanmar, and most of Sudan
Some items are restricted at the delivery stage. For instance, some items controlled by the Drug Enforcement Administration can only be delivered appropriately registered with the DEA.
Import duty may be due, based on the item's tariff code and its value. The shipment can be delayed or incur unexpected costs if the paperwork is wrong or incomplete. It can be difficult to fix problems once the shipment is sitting in US Customs.